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Stim-free athletic performance supercharger

  • Enhance muscle power and strength*
  • Extend aerobic and anaerobic endurance*
  • Boost and sustain blood flow to muscles*
Upgrade Yourself®with Performance Lab® SPORT Pre

Beast mode in a bottle: Upgrade strength, boost intensity and maximize muscle gains

Some pre-workouts use low-grade creatine linked to indigestion; jittery high-dose caffeine that reduces creatine absorption; and lots of pointless synthetic flavors and additives.

Performance Lab® SPORT Pre is a smarter, cleaner pre-workout.

Powered by sport nutrition innovations Setria® Performance Blend, Creapure® pH10, CarnoSyn® and NutriGenesis®, SPORT Pre enhances strength, intensity and endurance without caffeine or bloating.

Take SPORT Pre 30 minutes before exercise for peak performance in your session and robust muscle growth afterwards.


How to take

Get pumped up on training days with up to 6 capsules 30-45 minutes before your workout. Take on an empty stomach with 16-32 oz of water. For best results, take regularly and consistently. And stack with Performance Lab® Post and Maintain to replenish and reload muscles post-workout and on rest days.

Ultramodern Design

Pre is a potent, stim-free muscle primer designed to power you through high-intensity workouts. Intelligently stacked to boost and sustain Nitric Oxide (NO) levels for twice as long. Nourishing your muscles to protect against the build-up of lactic acid that can end sessions early.

Easy to swallow

Easy to swallow

Pre comes in convenient, easy-to-swallow 00-sized NutriCaps®. 100% plant-based capsules made from pullulan (fermented tapioca) that are ultraclean and naturally prebiotic-infused. Supporting comfortable digestion and superior nutrient absorption into your body.

Designed for Performance

  • Raises nitric oxide (NO) to support muscle blood flow and oxygenation*
  • Enhances anaerobic and aerobic exercise by sparking muscle-charging ATP energy*
  • Sustains NO activity to extend muscle benefits for strength and recovery*
  • Improves endurance by buffering and hydrating hard-working muscles*

Healthy for Daily Use

  • Safe, natural and well-tolerated to best support healthy long-term training programs*
  • Plant-based, prebiotic-infused NutriCaps® from pullulan (fermented tapioca)
  • Sports nutrition technology innovations Setria® Performance Blend, Creapure® pH10, CarnoSyn® and NutriGenesis®
  • Stimulant-free sports nutrition for training intensity without jitters or crashes*


Supplement Facts

Serving Size: 6 NutriCaps®

Servings per container: 20

Per Serving
% Daily
Sodium (from Himalayan Pink Salt) 140 mg 6%
NutriGenesis® Iron+ 2.5 mg 14%
Setria® Performance Blend [L-Citruline
(Kywoa Quality®),L-Glutathione (Setria®)]
2200 mg
Creapure® pH10 (contains 94% Creatine
Monohydrate [83% Creatine])
1250 mg
CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine 800 mg
Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus pinaster)
(95% proanthocyanidins)
100 mg
Himalayan Pink Salt 350 mg
Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calories per day diet.
† Daily Value not established.

Other Ingredients: NutriCaps® Pullulan Capsule, NuFlow® Rice Concentrate.

Suitable for vegans. Contains NO soy, egg, fish, shellfish, dairy, peanut, tree nuts, wheat, or other allergens. Non-GMO and non-irradiated. Free of gluten, synthetic additives, caffeine, artificial colors and preservatives.

Suggested Use: Take 6 capsules 30 minutes prior to training or competition on an empty stomach with 16 oz. (480 ml.) of water. For best results take consistently. For advanced usage guidelines visit www.performancelab.com/Advanced

NutriGenesis® and NutriCaps® are registered trademarks of Opti-Nutra Ltd.

Setria® is a registered trademark of Kyowa Quality.

Creapure® is a registered trademark of ALZCHEM AG.

Natural Alternatives International (NAI) is the owner of patents as listed on www.carnosyn.com and registered trademark CarnoSyn®.

BPA Free. Please Recycle.

The Science

Setria® Performance Blend (Setria® Glutathione + L-Citrulline), 2200 mg

Healthy circulation enhances athletic development in many ways, including:

  • Promoting muscle strength and power;
  • Oxygenating muscles for energy and endurance;
  • Enhancing mental intensity, focus and inner drive;
  • Nourishing muscles with proteins and anabolic factors;
  • Accelerating muscle repair and recovery.

For these reasons and more, many pre-workout supplements support nitric oxide (NO), a signaling compound that relaxes blood vessels to boost circulation during exercise.

Concern: L-Arginine and L-Citrulline used as NO-boosters in basic pre-workout supplements may be limited by poor bioavailability and questionable effectiveness.

Performance Lab® SPORT Pre performs better with Setria® Performance Blend:

Setria® Performance Blend has been clinically shown to boost and sustain Nitric Oxide (NO) levels in the bloodstream 2x as long as L-Arginine or L-Citrulline.

Nitric Oxide

One week of daily oral supplementation with 200 mg of Setria and 2 grams of L-Citrulline enhanced NO levels at 30 min. post-exercise.

Setria® Performance Blend has also been clinically shown to significantly increase lean muscle mass after 4 weeks and maintain muscle mass after 8 weeks when compared to placebo and citrulline malate:

Lean muscle mass

SPORT Pre features Setria® Performance Blend to provide a sustained nitric oxide (NO) circulation boost that enhances muscle performance and growth.

Beyond working as a NO-boosting team in Setria® Performance Blend, Setria® Glutathione + L-Citrulline each supply their own distinct sports nutrition benefits:

Setria® Glutathione – Master antioxidant enzyme that also boosts vitamins C and E to help:

  1. Protect muscle against cell-damaging oxidative stress during high-intensity training;
  2. Strengthen immune function against challenges linked to exercise and gym pathogens.

Glutathione spikes within muscle during exercise. Researchers suggest glutathione may improve performance, delay fatigue and support overall muscle health.

L-Citrulline (Kyowa Quality®) – Raises L-Arginine to promote muscle growth and function via:

  1. Improving BCAA utilization, muscle energy and anabolism while fighting catabolism;
  2. Supporting greater muscle power output while maintaining VO2 max (muscle efficiency);
  3. Helping to clear failure-inducing ammonia from muscle tissue.

In addition to enhancing muscle strength and endurance, L-Citrulline has been shown in research to reduce soreness and fatigue after exercise.

SPORT Pre Setria® Performance Blend is made by Kyowa Hakko Bio Co. Ltd., a world leader in health ingredients manufacturing and nutraceutical development.

Creapure® pH10 Creatine, 1250 mg


Creatine supports strength, growth and slows the build-up of lactic acid.

Creatine is an organic compound that is highly concentrated in muscle, where it is stored as fuel for the production of ATP energy that powers muscle contractions.

  • High-energy exercises – including strength training and intense short-burst aerobic and interval training – deplete muscle reserves of creatine and ATP energy.

SPORT Pre helps by restoring creatine to muscle, where it supports training intensity, muscle growth and recovery by:

  1. Recharging the ATP energy that powers muscle fibers during high-intensity exercise;
  2. Stimulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) to promote lean muscle development;
  3. Buffering lactic acid within muscle, helping to extend time of muscle exertion to failure

Research has linked creatine supplementation with increases in both maximum and total muscle work production.

SPORT Pre Creapure® pH10 is 99.5% pure creatine monohydrate that is pH-balanced to boost bioavailability and minimize typical creatine bloating and gastric distress.

CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine, 800 mg

Beta alanine raises carnosine – a dipeptide molecule highly concentrated in muscle tissue, especially fast-twitch muscle fibers. Research links higher carnosine concentrations in fast-twitch muscle fibers with increased muscle power during high-intensity exercise.

Consistently loading and maintaining muscle carnosine is one of the most important sports nutrition practices because it helps with both performance and recovery:

CarnoSyn® muscle performance support

  1. Increases the working capacity of muscle;
  2. Delays the onset of muscle fatigue and failure;
  3. Boosts overall muscle strength and endurance.

CarnoSyn® muscle recovery support

  1. Antioxidant activity to neutralize exercise-induced, muscle-damaging free radicals;
  2. Inhibits protein-damaging advanced glycation end-products (AGEs);
  3. Acts as a muscle-alkalizing pH regulator, buffering impact of muscle-damaging acids.
CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine

Beta alanine increases workload capacity and delays muscle fatigue.


SPORT Pre CarnoSyn® is beta-alanine made with nutritional technology that has been clinically shown to increase the working capacity of muscle, delay fatigue, and boost muscle strength and endurance.

SPORT Pre + SPORT Post + SPORT Maintain is your convenient solution for getting the consistent daily beta alanine and creatine intake shown to produce the best muscle benefits in human research.

Pre, Post, and Maintain

Himalayan Pink Salt, 350 mg

Salt helps maintain hydration by restoring electrolytes that are depleted by sweating. Salt also optimizes absorption of sports nutrition amino acids found in SPORT Pre.

SPORT Pre Himalayan Pink Salt is a natural, unprocessed form that includes natural trace minerals and electrolytes that are especially beneficial to athletes: Potassium, magnesium and calcium.

Himalayan Pink Salt

Beta alanine helps quicken recovery and enhance performance in your next workout.

Maritime Pine Bark Extract
(95% proanthocyanidins), 100 mg

Maritime Pine Bark Extract

Maritime Pine Bark compounds help boost blood flow to muscles during exercise.

Maritime Pine Bark Extract supplies proanthocyanidins: Potent antioxidants that help to soothe and protect muscles during intense training. Maritime Pine Bark Extract antioxidants also promote endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO).

  • NO relaxes blood vessels and increases delivery of energizing oxygen and restorative nutrients to the muscles, which in turn may help to enhance training performance.

SPORT Pre Maritime Pine Bark Extract is the strongest form available on the market today, standardized to supply a minimum of 95% proanthocyanidin antioxidants.

SPORT Pre Nitric Oxide Stack: Setria® Performance Blend + Maritime Pine Bark Extract

  1. Setria® Performance Blend efficiently raises nitric oxide;
  2. Maritime Pine Bark Extract regulates the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS);
  3. NOS catalyzes L-Arginine to produce Nitric Oxide.

Together SPORT Pre Setria® Performance Blend + Maritime Pine Bark Extract supply raw materials and cell signaling activity that work together for greater Nitric Oxide synthesis.

  • Research suggests L-Citrulline (Setria® Performance Blend) + Maritime Pine Bark relax blood vessels and boost blood flow more effectively when taken together.

NutriGenesis® Iron, 2.5 mg

Iron is crucial for oxygenating athletes’ blood and muscle tissues. But intense physical exertion reduces iron absorption while acelerating iron loss through sweat.

  • Low iron diminishes red blood cells’ ability to transport oxygen, and is associated with reduced exercise capacity, fatigue and sub-par performance.

Healthy iron levels have been shown in clinical research to improve athletic performance via enhanced strength, endurance and maximal muscle power output.

Performance Lab® NutriGenesis® Iron is complexed with a matrix of absorption-enhancing cofactors – a key advantage for athletes who may have a harder time absorbing the mineral.

Nutrigenesis Icon

The harder you train, the more you need iron.

SPORT Pre supplies 2.5 mg of Iron as NutriGenesis®, contributing to the optimal levels required for athletic performance.

To meet the higher iron demands of intense physical exertion, stack SPORT Pre with NutriGenesis® Multi (Men 2 mg Iron, Women 8 mg Iron) and SPORT Maintain (2.5 mg Iron)

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Performance Lab® SPORT Pre

Ready to upgrade your workout? Get SPORT Pre and start supercharging exercise, maximizing muscle and accelerating your athletic advancement.

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Who should take Performance Lab® SPORT Pre?

SPORT Pre can be taken by anyone taking part in any type of training program, from strength training and HIIT to long-distance running and endurance training. Its most pronounced performance-enhancing benefits have been associated with high-intensity, short-duration exercises. Regardless of activity, SPORT Pre helps to prime muscles for superior performance that encourages the best possible results from your training program.

How do I take Performance Lab® SPORT Pre?

On training days, take 6 capsules 45-60 minutes pre-workout with 16-32 oz. of water. Take SPORT Pre consistently.

For best results, take SPORT Pre with SPORT Post and SPORT Maintain. Designed to stack together, SPORT Pre + SPORT Post + SPORT Maintain form the world’s most convenient solution for getting the consistent daily beta alanine + creatine intake shown to produce the best muscle benefits in human clinical research.

Why do other supplements provide more creatine than Performance Lab® SPORT Pre’s 1250 mg per serving?

SPORT Pre is designed differently from other pre-workouts because raises creatine levels in two ways: It both supplies creatine and promotes natural creatine synthesis.

Our Creapure® pH10 is a highly bioavailable, so more usable creatine reaches the bloodstream after absorption. By using a superior creatine form and promoting the body’s natural creatine production, SPORT Pre more efficiently raises creatine stores with a lower dosage.

Our dual-pathway design also enables SPORT Pre to be taken consistently over the long term, eliminating the need for a loading phase and/or cycling as with standard creatine supplements. SPORT Pre’s conservative and natural creatine approach is also safer: Many popular creatine supplements use dosages that can raise creatine urinary concentrations by 90X – a significant spike which may affect kidney health.

Why do other pre-workout supplements use different nutrients or higher dosages than what I see in Performance Lab® SPORT Pre?

There is a problem with some pre-workouts using stimulatory ingredients that may be dangerous (synephrine is one example). Other pre-workouts may use high doses of beta alanine or other potentially risky ingredients.

Another example: Mega-dosing Mucuna Pruriens that is already potency-enhanced, in some cases standardized to up to 98% L-Dopa. With continued use, this excessive L-Dopa intake may create health concerns related to the endogenous dopaminergic system.

Don’t be fooled: Bigger dosages are not always better, and exotic ingredients are not always safe.

Performance Lab® SPORT formulas are different, designed for maximum effectiveness within safety boundaries. To achieve this, we choose safe, science-backed ingredients, formulate in synergistic combinations, use highly bioavailable nutrient forms, and deliver them in easy-to-absorb NutriCaps®.

We take these steps to pack more active nutrition into smaller dosages – enabling us to produce safe formulas that are effective for performance, safe for sustained daily use, and supportive of long-range health.

Can I drink coffee or take caffeine with Performance Lab® SPORT Pre?

Yes. We recommend that you try SPORT Pre with Performance Lab® Stim, which supplies Caffeine + L-Theanine and neurotransmitter support nutrients for a healthier, more balanced workout-stimulating experience.

Since caffeine may interfere with creatine absorption, it is important to stagger intake: Take SPORT Pre 45 minutes before exercise, wait 30 minutes, then take Stim.

With 50 mg caffeine per capsule, Stim enables strategic caffeine dosing. Only take as much as Stim as you need to enhance exercise performance. Minimum effective dosing of Stim caffeine promotes maximum absorption of the creatine in SPORT Pre and SPORT Post.

Is Performance Lab® SPORT Pre safe?

Like all Performance Lab® supplements, SPORT Pre is designed to be safe for long-term daily use, without the need for cycling. SPORT Pre achieves this by using pure, potent ingredients that are dosed appropriately and in line with clinical research. SPORT Pre’s clean formula design – free of GMOs, gluten, soy, colorants, preservatives and other additives – is also well-tolerated by the body; safe and beneficial for long-term use.

Is Performance Lab® SPORT Pre legal?

Yes. SPORT Pre is a safe, natural and 100% legal way to support peak physical performance during training.

How long does Performance Lab® SPORT Pre take to work?

SPORT Pre enhances training performance after the first use, with effects that are more noticeable with continued use. SPORT Pre is designed to produce superior training results over the long-term.

What is NutriGenesis®?

NutriGenesis® is a Performance Lab® nutrition technology innovation: Vitamins, minerals and amino acids grown in live cultures at our state-of-the-art lab.

A true biological nutrient form, NutriGenesis® closely mirrors the molecular structure of food nutrients. NutriGenesis® nutrients offer significant advantages over standard nutrient forms.

Featured in several Performance Lab® formulas, NutriGenesis® vitamins, minerals and amino acids are bioengineered to be safe, active and highly effective for overall health and performance.

Why did Performance Lab® develop NutriGenesis®?

Vitamins, minerals and amino acids are the most important nutrients you need to build a strong foundation for health and performance.

Performance Lab® developed NutriGenesis® to have our own in-house vitamins, minerals and amino acids to use in our own nutritional supplements.

In producing NutriGenesis®, Performance Lab® can best maintain our industry-leading quality standards for cleanliness, purity, effectiveness and eco-friendliness, across all our ultramodern formulas.

How is NutriGenesis® different from other nutrient forms?

Not all vitamins, minerals and amino acids are the same. There are many nutrient forms, produced with a variety of processes. Some of the most popular nutrient forms available in supplements today include:

Whole Food Concentrates

Whole food vitamin and mineral supplements are sourced from fruits, vegetables, herbs and mushrooms. They include natural cofactors that make food nutrients so easy for the body to absorb and utilize. However, they do require extensive processing and may be made with GMOs, mass agriculture and dirty eco-destructive practices.

Isolated Chemical (USP) Nutrients

Isolated Chemical (USP) is the cheapest vitamin and mineral form found in the most basic multivitamin supplements. This synthetic form chemically alters vitamins and minerals, isolating them from their whole-food cofactors. As a result, Isolated Chemical (USP) nutrients are typically harder to absorb and less effective than whole food nutrients.

Chelated Minerals

In this process, a mineral nutrient (such as iron, calcium, zinc) is bound with a chelator: An organic molecule (often an amino acid) that is large enough to enrobe the mineral. By surrounding the mineral, the chelator protects it against degradation. Chelated nutrients are highly stable and may improve nutrient uptake and utilization.

NutriGenesis® is different from traditional nutrient forms: Bioengineered to be better.

NutriGenesis® are cultured nutrients that replicate the creation of vitamins, minerals and aminos in nature.

NutriGenesis® is based on the work of Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Albert Szent Gyorgy, who theorized that nutrients presented in their naturally grown forms supply cofactors that make them more bioavailable, biologically active and effective than nutrients that are isolated.

In the NutriGenesis® process, single-cell organisms (Lactobacillus probiotics and brewer’s yeast) are seeded with micronutrients in a hydroponic growth medium.

The live single-cell organisms “eat” the micronutrients, divide and thrive. As the cultures grow, they produce fresh new NutriGenesis® vitamins, minerals and aminos within a matrix of natural cofactors. This familiar structure is more easily absorbed and utilized by the body.

More on the NutriGenesis® Process

NutriGenesis® advantages over other forms:

NutriGenesis® is essentially food nutrition. Mirroring food nutrients molecule-by-molecule, our vitamins, minerals and aminos are presented in pure elemental form. Maximum nutrition: Nothing more, nothing less.

Enhanced effectiveness. Because NutriGenesis® nutrients are in food-matrix form, they are recognized by the body as nature-identical -- maximizing nutrient uptake, bioavailability and beneficial activity.

Patented and researched. The patented process behind NutriGenesis® has been shown in research to enhance nutrient absorption and retention (when compared to chemical isolates).

Cleaner and safer. NutriGenesis® is produced in a sterile, tightly controlled lab setting. NutriGenesis® is minimally processed, requiring no pesticides, herbicides or other synthetics associated with some other whole-food nutrients.

Better for the planet: The NutriGenesis® process is clean and efficient, with little carbon footprint or environmental impact – especially when compared to factory farming for phytonutrients and strip mining for minerals.

Which formulas feature NutriGenesis® nutrients?

It all begins with NutriGenesis® Multi for Men and Multi for Women: Performance Lab®’s multivitamin starting point for human performance optimization.

NutriGenesis® vitamins, minerals and amino acids are also found in Performance Lab® formulas Stim, Flex, BCAA, Pre, Post and Maintain.

Beyond Performance Lab®, NutriGenesis® B-Vitamins are found in Mind Lab Pro®: the Universal Nootropic™.

30-Day Performance Promise

Your first order of any Performance Lab® product is covered by our 30-day performance promise.

Put Performance Lab® Pre to the test for a full 30 days and if you don’t see results, we’ll refund your money. No questions asked.

Simply get in touch with a member of our Customer Care team.

The Performance Lab® Performance Promise covers one container of any of our products, up to a maximum of three products per order. You’ll need to return any unused boxes.

SPORT Pre stacks well with…

Pre + Post

SPORT Pre primes performance by upping strength and intensity during exercise.

SPORT Post then ensures superior anabolic results by nourishing muscle repair, recovery and growth.

SPORT Pre + SPORT Post combine doses of CarnoSyn® beta alanine and Creapure® pH10 creatine.

Take SPORT Pre + SPORT Post as a convenient solution for the consistent daily beta alanine + creatine intake shown to produce the best muscle benefits in human research.

Learn More

Pre + Maintain

SPORT Pre is taken 30 minutes before exercise to quickly charge-up muscle tissues. SPORT Maintain carries muscle nourishment into rest day.

SPORT Pre + SPORT Maintain both load muscles with CarnoSyn® beta alanine and Creapure® pH10 creatine: Ultramodern forms of sports nutrients shown to produce the best muscle benefits when taken consistently over time.

Take SPORT Pre + SPORT Maintain to keep your muscles topped-off with the most research-backed sports nutrients for peak athletic performance and healthy muscle gains.

Learn More

Pre + Stim

SPORT Pre is stim-free. For those who prefer a caffeinated workout experience, SPORT Pre is designed to stack perfectly with Stim.

By enhancing caffeine stimulation, minimizing side effects, and restoring brain chemical balance, Stim promotes clean mind-body energy to power you through training and competition without performance crashes.

Since caffeine may interfere with creatine absorption, take SPORT Pre 45 minutes before exercise, wait 30 minutes, then take Stim.

Learn More

Pre + Carb

SPORT Carb complements SPORT Pre’s muscle-charging support with clean muscle fuel that absorbs fast and lasts 2+ hours.

SPORT Carb also maximizes SPORT Pre Creapure® pH10 creatine absorption into muscle.

Take SPORT Pre + SPORT Carb before exercise to prime muscles for enhanced athletic strength, power, endurance and more.

Learn More


The research and studies behind Performance Lab® SPORT Pre.

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Tarnopolsky MA, MacLennan DP. Creatine monohydrate supplementation enhances high-intensity exercise performance in males and females . Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:452–63.
Skare OC, Skadberg , Wisnes AR. Creatine supplementation improves sprint performance in male sprinters . Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001;11:96–102.
Vandenberghe K, Goris M, Van Hecke P, Van Leemputte M, Vangerven L, Hespel P. Long-term creatine intake is beneficial to muscle performance during resistance training . J Appl Physiol. 1997;83:2055–63
Earnest CP, Snell PG, Rodriguez R, Almada AL, Mitchell TL. The effect of creatine monohydrate ingestion on anaerobic power indices, muscular strength and body composition. Acta Physiol Scand 153: 207–209, 1995
Cooper R, et al. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update . Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition,2012,9:33


Sureda A, Córdova A, Ferrer MD, Pérez G, Tur JA, Pons A. L-citrulline-malate influence over branched chain amino acid utilization during exercise . Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Sep;110(2):341-51. doi: 10.1007/s00421-010-1509-4. Epub 2010 May 25.
Collins JK, Wu G, Perkins-Veazie P, et al. Watermelon consumption increases plasma arginine concentrations in adults . Nutrition 2007;23:261-6.
Hickner RC, Tanner CJ, Evans CA, et al. L-citrulline reduces time to exhaustion and insulin response to a graded exercise test . Med Sci Sports Exerc 2006;38:660-6.
Mandel H, Levy N, Izkovitch S, Korman SH. Elevated plasma citrulline and arginine due to consumption of Citrullus vulgaris (watermelon) . J Inherit Metab Dis 2005;28:467-72.
Osowska S, Duchemann T, Walrand S, et al. Citrulline modulates muscle protein metabolism in old malnourished rats . Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006;291:E582-6.
Pérez-Guisado J. and Jakeman PM. Citrulline malate enhances athletic anaerobic performance and relieves muscle soreness . J Strength Cond Res. 2010 May;24(5):1215-22. ↩
Bailey SJ. et al. l-Citrulline supplementation improves O2 uptake kinetics and high-intensity exercise performance in humans . J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015 Aug 15;119(4):385-95. ↩
Cutrufello PT., Gadomski SJ., Zavorsky GS. The effect of l-citrulline and watermelon juice supplementation on anaerobic and aerobic exercise performance . J Sports Sci. 2015;33(14):1459-66
Sureda A, Pons A. Arginine and citrulline supplementation in sports and exercise: ergogenic nutrients? Med Sport Sci. 2012;59:18-28. doi: 10.1159/000341937. Epub 2012 Oct 15.


Liu T, et a. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis . Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 575063.
Zhou X, Gong Z, Su Y, Lin J, Tang K. Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products . J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 Mar; 61(3):279-91.


Agostini F, Biolo G. Effect of physical activity on glutamine metabolism . Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010 Jan;13(1):58-64.
Antonio J, Street C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes . Can J Appl Physiol 1999;24:1-14.
Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response . Can J Physiol Pharmacol 1998;76:524-32.
Rohde T, Asp S, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Competitive sustained exercise in humans, lymphokine activated killer cell activity, and glutamine--an intervention study . Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1998;78:448-53.
Rohde T, MacLean DA, Pedersen BK. Effect of glutamine supplementation on changes in the immune system induced by repeated exercise . Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:856-62.
Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells . Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76.
Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. Glutamine, exercise and immune function. Links and possible mechanisms. Sports Med 1998;26:177-91.


Mora-Rodriguez R and Hamouti N. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance. Med Sport Sci. 2012;59:113-9
Del Coso J et al. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial . Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. 2016 February 26(2):156-16
Lara B et al. Interindividual variability in sweat electrolyte concentration in marathoners . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2016 Jul 29;13(31)

Pine Bark Extract

Durzan D. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life" J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2009; 5: 5.
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