If you were able to select which fat mass to burn first, which would you choose?

Well, belly fat, of course!

Stored fat around the midsection is not only an unflattering jiggly mess, but it’s also incredibly annoying...

...belly fat simply does not want to go.

In fact, when burning fat through diet and exercise, belly fat is typically the most difficult—and last—to go.

What’s more, reducing belly fat isn’t just good for appearances.

Excess fat in the midsection also poses a significant health risk to your organs, as well as to your cardio health, metabolism, immunity, mobility, and more.

Few things are more demoralizing than getting better exercise, sleep, and nutrition without noticing any substantial reductions in stomach fat.

However, unlike fat in other areas of the body, belly fat is uniquely resistant to fat breakdown, which is why unique measures must be taken to significantly reduce belly fat.

One such measure involves taking a stim-free fat burner supplement that:

  1. Encourages fat breakdown and mobilization.
  2. Protects against fat storage.
  3. Promotes anabolic lean muscle growth.

In this guide, we cover the Best Fat Burner for Belly Fat you can take to maximize your fat-burning efforts.

But before diving into that, let’s first address this burning question:

Can You Target Fat Loss in the Body?

If you could select an area of fat to burn first, you’d likely choose belly fat.
Yet, is this even possible?

When we talk about “targeting” fat loss, typically we mean burning a specific fat mass by exercising the muscle tissue near that fat mass.

The idea being that the heightened energy demand of small-muscle fatigue would specifically use adjacent fat mass as a source of muscle energy fuel.

For example, performing triceps exercises would burn fat near the triceps. Squats would specifically burn leg fat. Sit-ups would burn belly fat.

Makes sense, right??

Except, unfortunately, targeting fat loss is an unrealistic goal.

Key Point: Though you can increase the strength and mass of specific muscle groups through muscle-targeted workouts and lifts, our physiology is not conducive to spot reductions in fat mass.

One explanation for this: muscle cells can’t directly use triglycerides (stored fat) as energy fuel. Rather, triglycerides must first break down into glycerol and free fatty acids, which enter the bloodstream before becoming available for energy.[1]

Which is why full-body exercise remains one of the best strategies for reducing not only belly fat but excess fat across the entire body.

It’s just a fact of life that some areas of fat will burn quicker than belly fat, but eventually, if you stick with your fitness routine, you will notice a flatter stomach.

Even so, this still doesn’t explain why belly fat in particular is so stubborn, or why some bodies distribute more fat to the belly than other bodies.

Even seemingly “skinny” people have been found to store a harmful excess of fat in their abdomen, despite their “skin and bone” appearance.

The reasons for all this are summed up in the concept of Apple vs. Pear Body Types.

Apples and pears to show different body types in fat loss

The Difference Between Apple vs. Pear Body Shapes

The fundamental difference between apple and pear body types comes down to where the body distributes and stores its fat content: the gut (apple body) or beneath the skin (pear body).

People with excess fat stored in the gut are said to have an “apple” body shape, due to how fat stored in the abdomen gives the stomach a hard, thick, apple-like appearance. This type of fat is called “visceral fat.”

The “pear” body shape, on the other hand, stores fat beneath the skin across most of the body, typically resulting in a soft, jiggly, pear-like appearance, such as that of sumo wrestlers.

This type of fat is called “subcutaneous fat.”

Here’s the breakdown between visceral vs. subcutaneous fat:

  • Visceral Fat: present in the abdominal cavity, visceral adipose tissue is more sensitive to adrenergic stimulation (activation by adrenaline, noradrenaline, and similar catecholamine chemicals) and, thus, accumulates in response to stress.
  • Subcutaneous Fat: more evenly distributed across the body beneath the skin, subcutaneous fat poses less a risk on internal organ health and contains a larger number of inflammatory and immune cells than visceral fat.

In general, visceral fat is viewed as “unhealthy” fat, whereas subcutaneous fat is considered to be relatively “healthy.” As such, visceral fat carries a greater prediction of health issues than subcutaneous fat.[2]

The Unhealthy Relationship Between Stress and Visceral Fat

When confronted by a vicious lion, our body engages the stress response to quickly flush the body with fight-or-flight energy with which to …well, either fight or flee the lion.

For this to work, the body needs an easy-access site of stored energy to use on a spontaneous, as-needed basis.

Stored within the body—that is to say within the abdominal cavity—visceral belly fat supplies an easy-access storage of energy fuel for fight-or-flight activity.

This is very handy when confronted by a lion… but not so much when sitting in a computer chair all day.

The high-stress, low-activity lifestyle of modern man and woman strongly encourages the storage of visceral “emergency fuel” fat, despite the lack of physical, life-threatening emergencies in our lives, explaining the stubbornness of belly fat under conditions of chronic stress.

Without exercise or stress relief, the accumulation of excess “emergency fuel” in the abdomen eventually has the counterproductive effect of overburdening the body, reducing physical mobility, negatively affecting internal organs, and promoting various metabolic disorders.

In a 2017 cross-sectional analysis of obese men and women included in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study, visceral adipose tissue was most strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, such as insulin resistance and hypertension.[3]

Lifestyle Tips to Reduce Visceral Belly Fat

Just eat better and get more exercise, right? Right! Easy as pie!

Except that’s much easier said than done, especially now that everyone here is craving delicious, sugar-filled pie.

Even so, there are a few behavioral adjustments you can adopt to reduce your visceral belly fat and lead an all-around healthier, more active lifestyle, including:

1) Get More Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training

Exercise is one of the best ways to reduce visceral belly.

By increasing energy expenditure (calorie burning) and lean muscle mass, exercise strongly encourages the body to use food calories to grow, develop, and repair the body rather than build more fat tissue.

However, which exercise is better for reducing visceral belly fat?

Some studies link aerobic exercise to reduced visceral fat, while others suggest resistance training works exceptionally well.

With that in mind, here are couple studies that recommend aerobic exercise and resistance training, respectively:

  1. In 2013, a group of researchers performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between exercise and visceral fat. Their results suggested that “aerobic training of moderate or high intensity has the highest potential to reduce visceral adipose tissue in overweight males and females.”[4]
  2. Another 2013 study found significant improvements in visceral fat loss with resistance and endurance training exercises. The researchers’ conclusion: “High-intensity-resistance training induced a faster visceral fat loss, and thus the potential of resistance training should not be undervalued.”[5]

Combine Intermittent Fasting with Exercise for Better Results

Whether aerobic or anaerobic, exercising while fasting may significantly improve your fat loss results by encouraging the body to enter ketogenesis, a metabolic state that uses stored fat as energy fuel rather than food fuel.[6]

And adding an MCT oil supplement and BCAA stack may further improve your fitness performance while fasting.

To learn more about the Best BCAA for Fasted Cardio, click here.

2) Get Better Sleep

Take note: we are saying get BETTER sleep and not necessarily more sleep, even though sleep deprivation is a much, much more prevalent issue than oversleeping.

The reason for this: optimal sleep for adults is within a threshold of 7 to 8 hours per night.

Getting too little (less than 7 hours) or too much (more than 8 hours) sleep may both contribute to a greater accumulation of body mass index (BMI), subcutaneous fat (SAT), and visceral fat (VAT), as demonstrated by one 5-year study.

  • The IRAS Family Study, an extension of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS), conducted a report based on 1,107 participants subjected to abdominal CT scans BMI measures. Based on their findings, the researchers concluded that “extremes of sleep duration are related to increases in BMI, SAT, AND VAT in persons younger than 40 years old.”[7]

To improve your overall body composition and weight distribution, get better sleep within a proper threshold of 7 to 8 hours. Not too much, not too little. Juuust right.

3) Reduce Your Stress Levels

As a physiological adaptation to stress, visceral fat shouldn’t just be addressed in the context of weight loss but also in the context of stress management.[8] After all, visceral fat is quite literally one of the body’s means of managing stress—or at least the physiological response to stress.

Again, because modern life is ripe with abstract, non-threatening stressors that elicit no heightened physical activity, having chronically high stress levels without any relief strongly correlates with various metabolic disorders and visceral fat accumulation.

  • In one prospective cohort of 113 adult women, a group of researchers observed that the “combination of high chronic stress and high impulsive risk-taking may increase risk for visceral fat gain over time and therefore may be an important intervention target in obesity prevention.”[9]

Stress hormones, such as cortisol, encourage the accumulate of fat in the gut. Of course, much of modern stress is abstract and psychological. However, by physically taking the time to relax, reorganize your workspace, exercise, meditate, supplement stress-relieving herbal adaptogens—whatever it takes to lower your stress levels—you may lower your belly fat accumulation.

How Fat Burner Supplements Can Help You Achieve a More Fit Body Composition

A man and woman stretching off showing abs

Exercise, sleep, stress relief—this is an effective trifecta to hit to achieve a healthier, more desirable body composition. And by adding an effective fat burner supplement to the mix, you may further improve your exercise and fat loss results in less time.

When combined with high-intensity training, intermittent fasting, the dieting strategy that involves priming the body’s ketogenic fat-burning metabolism through intermittently scheduled fasts, may help encourage the body to burn fat for exercise energy and not food fuel.

Yet, this may come at the cost of anabolic muscle growth, which is also a significant contributor to improving fat loss.

And so, with that in mind, an effective fat burner stack can help you achieve a more fit body composition by simultaneously increasing the body’s calorie-burning capacity prior to exercise while protecting muscle tissue against the protein-damaging effects of fasted training.

The best fat burner for belly fat works by igniting your body’s natural thermogenic processes without relying on harmful, heart-racing stimulants or cheap, inferior synthetics.

On that note, here are some of the top-ranking fat burners you can take to improve your fitness and overall body composition:

Top Fat Burner Ingredients for Reducing Belly Fat

1) HMB (β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate)

The active metabolite of leucine, one of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), HMB helps reduce muscle protein breakdown while maximizing exercise’s fat-burning benefits.

Though an effective strategy for expediting fat loss, fasted training has its muscle-catabolizing drawbacks. Thankfully, with fat burner ingredients like HMB (β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate), you may not only minimize those drawbacks but further encourage the body to burn stored fat during calorie restriction.

The fitness and fat loss benefits of HMB are three-fold:

  1. Anabolic Support: HMB stimulates muscle growth factors and protein synthesis, while neutralizing the protein-damaging enzymes generated during exercise.[10]
  2. Athletic Endurance: enhancing strength, maximizing oxygen consumption, and buffering against acid build-up, HMB may help prolong exercise performance.[11]
  3. Lipolysis (Fat Burning): under fasting conditions, HMB seems to encourage the burning of stored fat for fuel, as opposed to breaking down muscle tissue for fuel.[12]

Taken in a pre-workout context, HMB is an incredibly effective supplement for improving exercise performance and fat-burning results. With HMB, you can expect to build more muscle, burn more fat, and feel good while doing it!

2) Coleus Forskohlii (Forskolin)

Used for centuries in the traditional Ayurvedic health system, Coleus forskohlii is an ancient herb prized in modern times for its unique cAMP-boosting bioactivities.

One of the leading ingredients in fat burner supplements, Coleus forskohlii extract is for many the go-to herbal fat-burner for a natural, stim-free boost on thermogenesis.

It’s all thanks to forskolin, the bioactive constituent of Coleus forskohlii. This labdane diterpene works by activating adenylate cyclase enzyme, which in turn increases activity of cyclic AMP (cAMP), a signaling compound that promotes lean body composition by:

  • Activating hormone-sensitive lipase, a hormone that mediates lipolysis, or the breakdown of stored fat cells.[13]
  • Increasing activity of hormonal cell messengers that regulate metabolism and anabolic muscle growth, including thyroid hormone and testosterone.[14]

What’s more, research suggests that Coleus forskohlii extract supplementation in conjunction with a low-calorie diet may be useful in managing metabolic risk factors,[15] making Coleus forskohlii a particularly effective fat burner for fasted training.

Look for Forslean® Coleus Forskohlii Extract: standardized to 10% forskolin, Forslean® is the most potent, advanced, and research-backed form of Coleus forskohlii extract. Human research suggests that Forslean® may favorably alter body composition by significantly decreasing body fat percentage and fat mass.[16]

3) Cayenne Pepper Extract

More than a food spice, Cayenne pepper is a truly hot fat burner that stimulates thermogenic energy expenditure without the common side effects associated with stimulants.

Caffeine and other stimulants reliably promote energy expenditure and, thus, fat burning. Yet, they do so in a risky, heart-racing way that’s not sustainable for long-term health benefits.

Cayenne pepper extract, on the other hand, delivers many of the same thermogenic benefits of these stimulants without the adverse effects of cardio health by triggering the release of hormones required to raise body heat. And these hormones have been shown to:

  • Stimulate beta adrenergic receptors, the stress-related receptors in visceral fat that maximize exercise-related calorie-burning by mobilizing fat energy fuel.[17]
  • Signal for hormone-sensitive lipase to promote lipolysis, the breakdown of fat cells, and fat mobilization and fat oxidation before and after exercise.[18]

More pronounced in visceral fat, the hormone-induced lipolysis benefits of cayenne pepper extract combined with Coleus forskohlii synergize for 2X the gut-flattening benefits.

Look for Capsimax® Cayenne Pepper Extract: a spicy hot chili pepper extract at 2% capsaicinoids, Capsimax® is buffered by OmniBead™ microsphere technology to eliminate the gastric burning side effects typically associated with hot peppers and spices. Take Capsimax® to enjoy this pepper’s fat burns without the stomach upset.

4) GTF Chromium

Found in whole-food products like brewer’s yeast, GTF chromium is a complex of molecules that benefits weight management by regulating insulin.

You’ve likely heard that chromium is an effective mineral for fat loss. However, GTF Chromium, the GTF version (glucose tolerance factor) of chromium, works even better, thanks to this complex compound’s regulatory effects on glucose and insulin.

GTF chromium seems to benefit fat loss by:

  • Promoting insulin activity by helping with insulin receptor sensitivity.
  • Supporting the metabolism of dietary sugars, fats, and proteins.
  • Curbing appetite by maintain blood sugar withing a healthy range.

Examining 11 different research studies, a clinical research review linked chromium supplementation to healthy weight management, with enough evidence to suggest that “chromium supplementation generates statistically significant reductions in body weight.”[19]

Look for NutriGenesis® Chromium: a clean, cultivated mineral form complexed with natural cofactors for maximum bioavailability and exceptional weight management support, NutriGenesis® Chromium is a nature-identical chromium type that more effectively delivers its metabolic performance-enhancing benefits than cheap, standard chromium ingredient forms.

Best Fat Burner for Belly Fat:
Performance Lab® SPORT Burn

A bottle of Performance Lab Burn

Performance Lab® SPORT Burn sparks thermogenic fat loss and spares lean muscle mass for a long-term boost on body composition and resting metabolic rate.

  • Stimulating fat-burning enzymes and hormones that help regulate fat breakdown, mobilization, and conversion to cellular ATP energy.
  • Increasing rate of energy expenditure for peak metabolic performance and calorie-burning capacity during high-intensity training.
  • Regulating and balancing blood sugar to encourage the use of stored fat as a source of exercise energy fuel and to help curb unhealthy food cravings.
  • Preserving protein and muscle tissue during fasted and non-fasted training conditions, ensuring greater anabolic muscle gains and lower muscle soreness.

Get the Best Deal for Performance Lab Burn Now

An ideal fat burning strategy involves building lean muscle mass to encourage the conversion of calories into anabolic gains—and not fat storage.

This is why Performance Lab® SPORT Burn’s stim-free, fat-burning, muscle-sparing formula design is the ideal supplement for impactful and safe fat loss.

Supplement Facts

  • Calcium, 175 mg
  • NutriGenesis® GTF Chromium+, 60 mcg
  • Forslean® (Coleus Forskohlii), 250 mg
  • HMB (β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate), 1000 mg
  • Capsimax® Cayenne Pepper Extract, 50 mg
  • BioPerine® Black Pepper Extract,5 mg

Quick Analysis

Performance Lab® SPORT Burn takes a two-pronged approach to burning fat by (1) stimulating thermogenic calorie-burning and (2) protecting anabolic lean muscle growth.

Fasted training, aerobic exercise, resistance training—this is a deadly combination for reducing visceral belly fat and achieving an all-around healthier, sexier body composition.

And it becomes an even deadlier combo when paired with Performance Lab® SPORT Burn, a stim-free fat-burning formula that works by:

  1. Raising the body’s calorie-burning capacity.
  2. Preserving muscle during fasted (and non-fasted) training.

Supporting the ideal body composition by optimizing thermogenesis and promoting anabolic muscle growth without relying on harmful stimulants, Performance Lab® SPORT Burn helps trim belly fat as part of a greater full-body sculpting agenda.

In particular, the combination of SPORT Burn’s Capsimax®’s pro-catecholamine activity and Forslean®’s pro-cAMP activity seems to encourage fat burning in the types of visceral fat tissues that accumulate in the belly.

Performance Lab® SPORT Burn simultaneously promotes hormone-induced lipolysis (fat burning) and protects against muscle-damaging enzymes while exercising to help reorganize weight distribution towards a leaner, more fit physique.

What’s more, Performance Lab® SPORT Burn encapsulates its all-natural, stim-free formula in plant-based, prebiotic-infused NutriCaps®, a synthetic-free capsule constructed out of fermented tapioca, or pullulan.

No doubt, BioPerine® is a game-changer when it comes to formula potency and quality, given the beneficial effects of black pepper extract on nutrient absorption and bioavailability. However, many BioPerine®-containing formulas counteract the potency-enhancing benefits of this extract by caking their formulas in artificial, hard-to-digest additives and synthetic compounds.

By avoiding stimulants and synthetics, SPORT Burn delivers a fiery hot fat burner that’s dangerous to stored fat, yet safe on the heart and the stomach.

All-natural, vegan-friendly, eco-friendly, non-GMO, and gluten-free, Performance Lab® SPORT Burn is a muscle-toning fat burner that’s safe to use on a daily, long-term basis for exercisers of all dietary lifestyles.

Conclusion

Performance Lab Fat Burner for belly fat loss

Performance Lab® SPORT Burn is the Best Fat Burner for Belly Fat

Is it possible to specifically target and reduce belly fat? Not exactly.

However, it is possible to improve your overall body composition by shifting your metabolism towards anabolic lean muscle growth, as opposed to visceral fat storage. And, naturally, what follows anabolic lean muscle growth is further thermogenic fat loss.

Excess stress, poor sleep, sedentary work-life—these are the key, non-dietary contributors to an unhealthy “apple” body composition. However, simply by anchoring your day with a consistent workout schedule, augmented by an effective, muscle-sparing fat burner supplement, you may reduce your stress levels and earn better sleep quality for a better optimized metabolism.

Performance Lab® SPORT Burn doubles as a fat burner and a muscle builder to improve both your body composition and your fitness performance.

With intermittent fasting and fasted training accumulating more and more clinical evidence to back them up as effective weight management strategies, the need for a fasting-friendly fat burner is only on the rise.

Namely a fasting-friendly fat burner that protects muscle tissue against the protein-diminishing side effects of fasting.

By adding Performance Lab® SPORT Burn to your daily workout supplement stack, you may burn more fat and build more muscle in less time, without any fears of derailing your intermittent fasting results or risking any harmful, long-term side effects that tend to accompany overcaffeinated, artificially manufactured fitness powders.

With Performance Lab® SPORT Burn, you can expect only clean, green, gut-healthy, gut-trimming fat burns and muscle gains.

Get the Best Deal on Performance Lab® SPORT Burn Here.

Ultimate Belly Fat Burner Supplement Stack

Crunches and sit-ups aren’t enough to torch belly fat. What you need is a full body workout supported by full-body supplement stacks to improve your overall body composition. Better metabolic performance, better muscle gains, better digestive support—there are many bio-pathways (and their respective supplements) you must simultaneously take to make any long-term dents on your abdominal fat.

With that in mind, to create the Ultimate Belly Fat Burner Supplement Stack, pair Performance Lab® SPORT Burn with the following supplement stacks:

Performance Lab® SPORT Pre

A bottle of Performance Lab Pre

Stim-free athletic performance supercharger for a fast-acting boost on muscle strength, training intensity, and exercise endurance.

What better way to burn fat than to exercise? In fact, in our days of easy-breezy grocery store shopping, exercise and sport are perhaps the only reasonable ways left for us to sufficiently burn enough energy relative to our energy intake. And with Performance Lab® SPORT Pre, an innovative, zero-calorie, synthetic-free beast-mode-in-a-bottle pre-workout formula, burning energy through high-intensity exercise is much easier. Taken daily (or whenever you work out), SPORT Pre may drastically enhance your exercise performance for greater weight loss and muscle gain results.

  • Supplement Facts: Sodium (from Himalayan Pink Salt), NutriGenesis® Iron+, Setria® Performance Blend [L-Citrulline (Kyowa Quality®), L-Glutathione (Setria®)], Creapure® pH10 (contains 94% Creatine Monohydrate [83% Creatine]), CarnoSyn® Beta-Alanine, Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pinus pinaster) (95% proanthocyanidins), Himalayan Pink Salt

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® SPORT Pre, click here.

Performance Lab® Stim

A bottle of Performance Lab Stim

Caffeine-powered, nootropic-enhanced stim stack designed for crash-free cognitive energy, clarity, and alertness without the jittery side effects.

There’s a reason why so many pre-workout formulas and fat burners use caffeine: it works. However, these formulas far too often supply too much caffeine, resulting in twitchy, jittery overstimulation that does more to mentally burn you out than to burn fat. Performance Lab® Stim has changed all that with its innovative Caffeine 2.0 pill design that combines the best of caffeine’s thermogenic effects with the cognitive balancing benefits of nootropic amino acids (L-theanine, L-tyrosine) and B-vitamins. This is a great stim stack to take as an optional side on with Performance Lab® SPORT Burn and SPORT Pre.

  • Supplement Facts: NutriGenesis® Caffeine Balance B-Complex: Riboflavin+ (Vitamin B2), Vitamin B6+, Folate+ (Vitamin B9), Vitamin B12+; Natural Caffeine (from Coffea robusta seeds), Suntheanine® L-Theanine, Ajipure® L-Tyrosine

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® Stim, click here.

Performance Lab® Prebiotic

A bottle of Performance Lab Prebiotic

2-in-1 probiotic + prebiotic soluble fiber support for healthy metabolic performance and microbiome nourishment.

The recent emphasis on probiotic-enhanced foods, drinks, and supplements has been a positive development in the realm of health and fitness. Gut microbiome support is a huge factor in boosting your overall health and fitness. Yet, because they’re dealing with live cultures, probiotic supplements tend to be unpredictable and often unreliable. By switching gears from live probiotics to prebiotic soluble fibers, the food type that nourishes the growth and health of beneficial bacteria already in your gut, Performance Lab® Prebiotic offers a superior gut health support stack that may go in a long way in promoting your digestive health, immune function, fat loss results, and gut-brain axis connectivity.

  • Supplement Facts: Orafti® Synergy1 (Inulin-FOS) (FructoOligoSaccharides from Chicory Root [Cichorium intybus])

To get the best deal on Performance Lab® Prebiotic, click here.

References

  1. Alves-Bezerra M, Cohen DE. Triglyceride metabolism in the liver. Compr Physiol. 2017 Dec 12; 8(1): 1-8.
  2. Ibrahim MM. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue: structural and functional differences. Obes Rev. 2010 Jan; 11(1): 11-8.
  3. Elffers TW et al. Body fat distribution, in particular visceral fat, is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women. PLoS One. 2017; 12(9): e0185403.
  4. Vissers D et al. The Effect of Exercise on Visceral Adipose Tissue in Overweight Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e56415.
  5. Dutheil F et al. Different modalities of exercise to reduce visceral fat mass and cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome: the RESOLVE randomized trial. Int J Cardiol. 2013 Oct 9; 168(4): 3634-42.
  6. Vieira AF et al. Effects of aerobic exercise performed in fasted v. fed state on fat and carbohydrate metabolism in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct; 116(7): 1153-1164.
  7. Hairston KG et al. Sleep Duration and Five-Year Abdominal Fat Accumulation in a Minority Cohort: The IRAS Family Study. Sleep. 2010 Mar 1; 33(3): 289-295.
  8. Drapeau V et al. Is visceral obesity a physiological adaptation to stress? Panminerva Med. 2003 Sep; 45(3): 189-95.
  9. Mason AE et al. Chronic stress and impulsive risk-taking predict increases in visceral fat over 18 months. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2018 May; 26(5): 869-876.
  10. Cruz-Jentoft AJ. Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methyl Butyrate (HMB): From Experimental Data to Clinical Evidence in Sarcopenia. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2018; 19(7): 668-672.
  11. Durkalec-Michalski K et al. The Effect of a 12-Week Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation on Highly-Trained Combat Sports Athletes: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study. Nutrients. 2017 Jul 14; 9(7): pii: E753.
  12. Gerlinger-Romero F et al. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the expression of ubiquitin ligases, protein synthesis pathways and contractile function in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of fed and fasting rats. J Physiol Sci. 2018 Mar; 68(2): 165-174.
  13. Barrea L et al. Nutritionist and obesity: brief overview on efficacy, safety, and drug interactions of the main weight-loss dietary supplements. Int J Obes Suppl. 2019 Apr; 9(1): 32-49.
  14. Laurberg P. Forskolin stimulation of thyroid secretion of T4 and T3. FEBS Lett. 1984 May 21; 170(2): 273-6.
  15. Loftus HL et al. Coleus forskohlii Extract Supplementation in Conjunction with a Hypocaloric Diet Reduces the Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2015 Nov; 7(11): 9508-9522.
  16. Godard MP et al. Body composition and hormonal adaptations associated with forskolin consumption in overweight and obese men. Obes Res. 2005 Aug; 13(8): 1335-43.
  17. Janssens PLHR et al. Acute Effects of Capsaicin on Energy Expenditure and Fat Oxidation in Negative Energy Balance. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e67786.
  18. Kawada T et al. Effects of capsaicin on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet. J Nutr. 1986 Jul; 116(7): 1272-8.
  19. Onakpoya I et al. Chromium supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Obes Rev. 2013 Jun; 14(6): 496-507.